Is Self-administering Medication a safe as well as a secure method. Moreover, are there any risks, if we self medicate ourselves. Self Medication is the taking of drugs herbs or home remedies on one’s own initiative, or on the advice of another person without doctor’s consultation.
THERE ARE SOME RISKS OF SELF MEDICATION
Delay in seeking medical advice.
Serious adverse reactions.
Dangerous drug interactions.
Incorrect manner of administration.
Masking of severe diseases.
Allergic reaction to some medicines
Addiction to some drugs.
Overall, Not all infections can be treated with antibiotics, Antibiotics can’t cure viral infections like cold & flu.
In fact, only take antibiotics prescribed to you, don’t share them with family &friends.
Antibiotics are not always the answer, in particular, so, don’t demand antibiotics if your doctor says you don’t need them.
Always seek the advice of a qualified doctor when taking antibiotics
Do I really need antibiotics?
SAY YES TO ANTIBIOTICS
when needed for certain, infections caused by bacteria.
SAY NO TO ANTIBIOTICS
for viruses such as cold & flu/runny nose even if the mucus is thick, yellow/green. Antibiotics won’t help for some common bacterial infections including most cases of bronchitis many sinus infections & some ear infections.
Do antibiotics have side effects?
Anytime antibiotics are used, they can cause side effects. when Antibiotics are not needed they won’t help you & side effects could still hurt you. common side effects of Antibiotics can include Rash, Dizziness, Nausea, Yeast infections and Diarrhea.
More serious side effects include Clostridium infection which causes diarrhoea that can lead to severe colon damage & death. People can also have severe life-threatening allergic reactions.
Misusing & Overusing
Taking Antibiotics when they are not needed to accelerates the emergence of Antibiotics resistance. One of the biggest threat to global health.
Overuse of Antibiotics can cause bacteria to become resistant. meaning current treatment will no longer work.
It is the bacteria itself, not the person or animal that becomes resistant to antibiotics.
When bacteria become resistant to antibiotics common infections will no longer be treatable.
Antibiotic-resistant infection can affect anyone of any age in any country.
Antibiotic-resistant infection can lead to longer hospital stays, higher medical costs &more deaths.
Everyone has a Role to Play You Can Help Prevent Antibiotic Resistance
Preventing infection can reduce the use of Antibiotics & limit the spread of antibiotic-resistant. Good basic hygiene is one of the most effective ways to reduce the risk of infection.
Make sure you complete your course of antibiotic treatment & don’t leave when symptoms subside.
Make sure you take antibiotics on regular times for a minimum of 5 days.
What can you do to ease the symptoms?
Have plenty of rest and drink lots of fluids
Ask a pharmacist to recommend medicines to help your symptoms
Fever is a sign the body is fighting infection and usually gets better by itself, Paracetamol! or ibuprofen can help reduce fever
If symptoms persist, please contact your pharmacist or General Physician
These are medication that primarily relieves pain. They are of different types. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and steroids are of major concern
Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
They’re a group of drugs that are used to relieve pain, reduce fever & produce an anti-inflammatory effect for swelling &redness.
So, most well-known NSAIDs are paracetamol (Crocin, Dolo), Aspirin, Ibuprofen & Diclofenac (Voveran) Most people use them to treat headache, muscle ache, cramps, Joint Pains, aches from Cold.
NSAIDs are easily available, so many people don’t consider them serious medications still, they have major side effects such as,
Heart Health: Taking NSAIDs may increase the risk of heart attack/stroke.
Kidney Health: Even short term use can harm kidneys. If you have pre-existing kidney disease & taking NSAIDs. It’s important to talk to your doctor about it.
Digestion: Short term NSAIDs use can cause Gastrointestinal distress like stomach pain or nausea.long term use can cause ulcers (Peptic ulcer disease) & stomach bleeding.
Risk of NSAIDs
NSAIDscanmasksigns &symptoms of infections.
NSAIDs (particularly indomethacin) can interfere with medications used to control cardiac failure.
NSAIDs can interfere with blood clotting & raise your BP up to dangerous & life-threatening rates If you have already been diagnosed with high BP, high cholesterol or any heart disease, you should take serious caution before taking NSAIDs & speak with your doctor beforehand.
Women &anyone over 60 years age are at higher risk of side effects with NSAIDs.
Side Effects of NSAIDs
To avoid overdose or increase in side effect follow these tips when taking NSAIDs
Watch your dosage – take the lowest effective dose for the shortest amount of time required for relief. Talk with a doctor before using NSAID for more than 10 days for Pain.
Read Labels carefully – Make sure you know what you are taking. many medicines contain NSAIDs so look at active ingredient on tablets & know what’s in every medication you are taking. To avoid an excessive dose of NSAIDs.
Know the Risks – Be aware of any risk factor that could increase your chance of side effect when taking NSAIDs such as some preexisting conditions like kidney disease.
Talk to your doctor before taking new medicine This will help you understand the risk & make the best decision for your health.
So, talk to your doctor about what you can do to reduce your use of NSAIDs & find natural ways to decrease inflammation that may be causing pain.
For appropriate use of NSAIDs FDA (Food & Drug Administration) alliance for rational use of NSAIDs in addition to the medical societies strongly recommend that,
So, these are chemicals, often hormones, that your body makes naturally. Besides, they help your organs, tissues & cells do their jobs. Two main types are corticosteroids and an anabolic-androgenic steroid.
On the whole, Corticosteroids which are of major concern, are medicines that quickly fight inflammation in your body. These lab-made steroids work like the hormone cortisol, which your adrenal glands make. cortisol prevent your immune system from making substances that cause inflammation.
To avoid overdose or increase in side effect follow these tips when taking steroids,
Make prescriber aware of any concurrent diseases, in particular.
Be mindful of back pain as well as weight gain.
If a patient taking steroid medicine for more than 3 weeks then they shouldn’t stop the medication.
The dose should be tapered down gradually to minimum levels & then stopped,
Don’t take Antacids (PAN) & anti-inflammatory Pain Killer (ibuprofen) while taking steroids.
OTHER MEDICATIONS OF CONCERN
Antihistamines (cetirizine) or cough syrups:
Used in cold, have sedation dizziness as a side effect.
Calcium supplements – an overdose of calcium may lead to the kidney as well as gall bladder stones. cannot be taken if the patient is having kidney or gall bladder stones.
Vitamin D – In excessive amount may damage heart & kidneys.
Patients should ask for doctors approval before taking supplements.
Contraceptive Pills :
Make sure you discuss with your doctor before starting one, as there may be a risk of some unwanted/unintended reactions which may become serious.
So, Self Medication is an important part of everyone’s life. But it must be made sure that Self Medication and patient safety are in contrast to each other.
On the whole, leadership is the art of motivating a group of individuals to act toward a common goal. Management, in particular, is a social discipline concerned with the actions of the people and the institutions of a human. In general terms, Leadership is about inspiring and management is about planning. In fact, the most dynamic element of a company is the manager. Furthermore, without him/her, the resources of production remain as resources without output. Moreover, Public health is a vital community medicine speciality which integrates an individual’s concepts of public health.
Good management and leadership are required to tackle the health issue so that the problem can be resolved appropriately and most productively. Particularly, this can be done by evaluating service delivery, service efficiency and resource utilization. So, Public health is about protecting and strengthening communities through the prevention, care, and policy advancement of injury or disease. In addition, there are two key aspects a health-care organization wants to achieve:
To enhance the health condition of the population
To provide the healthcare services to the community
Healthcare systems consist of a large number of professionals, groups of complex units and specialities. For example, Doctors and administrators in hospitals are not always in perfect relationships. Due to the demands in the healthcare world, it’s common for the doctors to get overwhelmed and lose sight of what matters most to the administrators. Besides, these two groups tend to have different focus areas. Doctors concentrate on patient care while administrators concentrate more on the organizational aspects of operating the company. Situations like these help in the emergence of a leader and according to Huston CJ, the following characteristics are seen in a leader:
Envisioning the desired future
Fostering Innovation and Change
Building Effective Teams
Creating positive work cultures
ENVISIONING THE DESIRED FUTURE
A critical part of leadership is having a vision for the optimal work environment. Followers become more inspired to act when leaders promote a strong vision that many people identify with and want to be part of. Vision offers guidance for a team and lets people concentrate on doing what it takes to get a job done well. Vision also helps encourage and offers a clear view of how the management plans to accomplish those targets for those concerned.
FOSTERING INNOVATION AND CHANGE
Some of the driving forces for change in contemporary health care include raising prices, diminishing reimbursement, shortages in the workforce, new technology, and a growing elderly population. Healthcare leaders today are challenged to think in new ways, adjust to change, and lead that change while creating new care models and dealing with rapid change effectively while leading more complex organizations. Meeting this challenge was also seen as being an important part of leadership skills. The ability of the change agent is what often differentiates a successful change effort from an unsuccessful one.
A leader who is skilled in organized change theory and execution to cope effectively with contradictory human emotions and to connect and balance all facets of the company that will be impacted by the transition. Leaders will also ensure that anyone impacted by a transition can be included in the preparation for the transition. The agents of reform and the system’s “elements” need to build goals and plans together freely.
BUILDING EFFECTIVE TEAMS
Teambuilding, which includes a shared mission and vision of all stakeholders, is critical to achieving organizational objectives. The role of the leader is fundamental in building that team. In team building, the leader must recognize all team members’ skills and capabilities and empower them to work to the fullest potential. The most efficient teams include talented people who have complementary areas of expertise and are comfortable to express their opinions. Leaders will trust and encourage their team members with new learning opportunities. The leaders and their teams should be able to show a high degree of emotional intelligence and the confidence to make the right decisions for the company when tough decisions are needed. Leaders will also inspire team members to collaborate collaboratively, so they can work together effectively and learn from each other.
CREATING POSITIVE WORK CULTURES
Leaders need to set a good example because, after the leaders of the organization, workers often model their attitudes. Besides, a leader who ‘shows honesty and integrity in all activities, for example, can serve as a role model for team members to ensure they act similarly. A leader who ‘admits a mistake and takes ownership of the situation can demonstrate the importance of acting responsibly to the rest of the team. Organisational leaders are the most powerful force in changing the culture of an organization and doing away with intimidating behaviour. True leaders do so by talking to the employees of the company; by modelling desired behaviour (“walking the talk”); and by formulating policies that promote, enable and reward desired improvements in attitudes and actions around the company.
Healthcare leadership aims at influencing practitioners towards achieving the shared goal of quality patient care. The demands put on leaders in the hospital sector have become more complex, and the need for different types of leadership is becoming increasingly obvious. The intensive reorganization has taken place to derive cost-efficiency and improve productivity.
As a result of these changes, there has been increasing recognition that certain assumptions of traditional leadership models are not well suited to bringing about change at the point of care or to ensuring expanded participation of clinicians and patients in decision-making. Accordingly, calls have been made for a transition to a new phase of hospital leadership, one that puts the clinical frontline and clinicians at the top.
The Transformation theory demands that leaders express their vision in a meaningful, exciting way which creates cohesion and unification collective purpose; the dedicated manager has a vision and is capable of inspiring others as transformational King. The transformative leaders will inspire success the capacity to affect behaviours beyond expectations. Transformation leaders seek to accomplish greater goals within an organization by encouraging other community members to express their dream for the organization. Transformation leaders are motivating and raising their follower’s morality and helping them reach their fullest potential. The leaders of transformation are Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Nelson Mandela
Collaborative partnerships in today’s dynamic and competitive healthcare environment allow organizations to achieve improved results by gaining expertise, skills, technologies or other vital resources that a single entity cannot provide on its own. Collaborative collaborations put together people who have very different bases of expertise, behaviours and expectations. Each partner has unique knowledge and competencies that can benefit others. They build learning opportunities for themselves and each other as partners coordinate, prepare plans and move forward. Stanfield says factors like moral values and honesty play a role in successful leadership. Communication is a two-way path, so being an effective communicator requires proper listening and virtuous speech. So, Effective leaders in health care need professional skills. Some of the skills are as follows:
Listening and Learning
Planning and Vision
Build open channels of Communication
Competence refers to the process which allows individuals, particularly leaders and managers, to express the competencies required to complete the task. To sum up, it has been found that the atmosphere at healthcare organizations is dynamic that the skilled and knowledgeable leaders and administrators are in desperate need of handling the social health issues. Competent leaders have the ability, skills and knowledge to handle a given situation in the best possible efficient way. So, It is a crucial dimension, which needs tremendous attention.
The Health Care Manager will demonstrate the following particular behaviours to facilitate collaborative problem-solving among stakeholders:
Trust that the goals and aims are achievable.
The capacity to act as an active listener.
The capacity to share information and power with the employees
The ability to evaluate and manage varying risk levels in decision making and implementation.
Although collaborative leadership has much in common with theories of transformational leadership and servant leadership, there are also many differences. Among the many benefits of collective leadership, there are drawbacks, too. So, Two of the drawbacks are to:
Communication can be sluggish and time-consuming
Conflicts of a high degree may require management in addition to mediation
Collaborative leaders may need to grant the team some of their power as well as authority
While this sector is a difficult one to deal with leaders, it should welcome each other and work together to solve the related local problems. Therefore, saving on other unnecessary costs that may arise would prevail through the introduction of new ways and means of communicating a seamless flow of events. In the same way, Management and leadership should go hand in hand. In that, while leaders are individuals they are followed by others by their own choices and managers must be obeyed.
Patient counselling, in particular, is defined as providing medication information orally or in written form to the patients or their representatives on directions of use, advice on side effects, precautions, storage, diet and lifestyle modifications.
OBJECTIVES OF PATIENT COUNSELLING
In fact, the patient should recognize the importance of medication for his well-being. So, a working relationship and a foundation for continuous interaction and consultation should be established. To sum up, the Patient’s understanding of strategies to deal with medication side effects and drug interactions should be improved. Moreover, we should ensure better patient compliance. Correspondingly, the patient becomes an informed, efficient and active participant in disease treatment and self-care management. In fact, the pharmacist should be perceived as a professional who offers pharmaceutical care. So, Drug interactions and adverse drug reactions should be prevented.
STAGES OF PATIENT COUNSELLING
Review the patient’s record in particular
As well as introduce your self
Moreover, explain the purpose of counselling
Obtain drug-related information such as allergies, use of herbals etc.
Consequently, assess the patients understanding of the reasons for therapy
Assess any actual as well as potential concerns or problems of importance to the patient.
The medicine’s generic as well as brand name
In fact, in which way it helps the patient?
How it makes him/her feel?
How long it takes to begin working?
When to take the medicine?
How long it will be necessary to take the medicine?
When to take it: before, during, after meals? At bedtime? At any other special times?
How to take it? With water? With fruit juice? How much?
What to do if you forget to take it (miss a dose)?
Foods, drinks, or other medicines that you should not take while taking the medicines.
Restrictions on activities while taking the medicine
Possible side effects. What to do if they appear. How to minimize the side effects? How soon they will go away.?
When to seek help if they are problems?
How long to wait before reporting no change in symptoms?
How to store medicine?
The expiration date
The cost of the medicine
How to have your prescription refilled, if necessary?
The necessity to complete the course.
Drug-Drug, Drug-Food interactions
Supply medication reminder chart.
Issues regarding Manner:
Use language that the patient understands
Use appropriate counselling aids
Present facts and concepts in simple words and in a logical order
Use open-ended questions.
Verify the patient’s understanding using feedback
Summarize by emphasizing key points
Allow the patient to put forward any concerns.
Help the patient to plain follow-up
IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF COUNSELLING
The environment should be conducive to proper interaction between patient and pharmacist. So, there should be privacy and enough time for proper interaction.
In fact, Patients get a lot of benefit by way of information. So, Pharmacists get benefit by way of better business.
Barriers are three types:
In short, a patient may not like to listen. Furthermore, He/ She may have some disadvantage or may not know your language or may feel shy or inhibited. These barriers must be overcome with patience However, if the patient is reluctant about accepting advice, it is better to leave him and not insist on giving advice.
The owners of the establishment in particular, may not like patient counselling or there may not be enough space where counselling may be done.
Undoubtedly, the Pharmacist who is giving the counselling may have a problem with language or subject or some other problem may be there. So, all these barriers must be overcome to be able to give proper Patient Counselling.
For the past few decades, the world has progressed rapidly, in particular, in health communications. Moreover, it developed from being a one-dimensional aspect of public service pronouncements to an additional complex multi-dimensional approach. Undoubtedly, It focuses on popular strategies which are utilized by commercialized marketers popularly known as “Social Marketing.” It is a type of marketing designed not to specifically help a brand but to generate social or behavioural change. So, it raises the awareness of a problem using traditional marketing techniques.
Additionally, this consumer focus involves the study and constant reassessment of each and every aspect of the social marketing programme. So, benefitting the public is always the centre of attention. Nowadays, social networking platforms such as Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp, have become the main source of information. To conclude, social networking has been an important part of the marketing and communication strategies of many health-care organizations. It is a perfect mean to keep individuals, communities and healthcare organisations linked even though physically separated.
In short, Social marketing is the best way to spread information. Conversely, if it’s COVID-19 news from specific states or national news or information on drugs its treatment etc., social networks take the message where it’s going to need to. Not only are we learning the latest news alerts with the foundation of social networking sites in the 21st century, in addition, but we are also using sites such as Facebook and Twitter to provide personal and business updates. Social media also educates us about the clinical manifestations of many diseases, in turn, saving many lives.
Social marketing acts as a source of information in the healthcare industry. Moreover, it provides information to the patients and their representatives regarding the outcomes of disease. Many healthcare organizations rely upon social media as a part of marketing their services. There are many advantages in the healthcare sector due to social marketing which are as follows:
Educate the patients better as they are health care consumers
Lowering barriers to access online health services and information
Patients take a more involved part in their own health decisions
Adults would possibly share their health information and experiences through the use of social networks
Experts believe it increases the patient’s quality of care
The health-care system is more open in terms of outcomes, costs and benefit
Greater trust results from successful patient-provider relationships
Social marketing promotes mark appreciation and prestige for organization and uniqueness
The time and gap between doctors and patients under isolation is shrinking
WHAT IS SOCIAL MARKETING?
Jessica Hun defined social marketing as a method of marketing which is designed to create a social change but not to directly benefit a brand. Using the techniques of traditional marketing, it raises the awareness of a given problem or a cause, and it aims to convince the customers to change their behaviours. Rather than selling a product, social marketing sells a behaviour which benefits the society to create the desired change. During the 1970s, Philip Kotler and Gerald Zaltman realized that the marketing principles used to sell products could be used to “sell” ideas, and behaviours. Social marketing is defined by Kotler and Andreasen as a different form of marketing from other marketing areas only in terms of the marketer’s and his or her organization’s objectives.
CONCEPTS IN SOCIAL MARKETING THEORY
The concept of social marketing is a mass theory of communication promoting valuable information and accepted behaviours. For promoting communication and for the benefit of the society, it integrates marketing principles, tools & techniques. Into the following types, we classify social marketing:
Operational Social Marketing
Strategic Social Marketing
Operational Social Marketing
To generate the behavioural change we design Operational social marketing. It raises awareness for a problem using traditional marketing techniques and focuses to persuade an audience to change their behaviour.
Strategic Social Marketing
To invent new strategies for development we design Strategic social marketing. It increases the awareness of a problem using traditional marketing techniques and focuses to persuade the audience to change their behaviour.
COMPONENTS OF SOCIAL MARKETING
Social marketing involves research and reassessment of every element of the programme. Benefitting the public is always the centre of attention. Its theory is a framework that helps to plan, design and evaluate campaigns by sharing information as to its main objective. Instead of trusting public service pronouncements, as in the past, it uses creativity to give out information. We prepare Information and distribute it as per a plan to allow sharing and outcome. There are four major components of social marketing. We use it as social marketing techniques which are:
The Product in social marketing isn’t a physical offer. There is a continuum of products, ranging from tangible, physical products like condoms, to services like medical examinations, practices such as breastfeeding, ORT or a heart-healthy diet and finally more intangible ideas such as environmental protection. The goal achieved by social marketing is the development of sustainable products which benefits society. To have a genuine product, the persons must explain that they really are in problem and offering the product to them is a good solution. The role of the study here is to discover the perceptions of people about the problem and its product and to understand its importance.
In social marketing, Price is what the customer will pay for receiving the offering. Prices could be monetary or non-monetary. The Monetary price is the selling amount of the commodity that benefits the community. The Non-monetary prices are the social costs and psychological costs such as changing habit. If the price is low, then the effect will be deeper.
This defines manner via which the product is provided to the customer and is also where one can find the population. It is the region where social marketing will be most productive. It is the site of distribution of product, where the changes are accepted. If the place is easily available, the campaign is successful. For a tangible product, this refers to the delivery method, including the warehouse, vans, staff, stores where it’s sold or locations where it’s delivered free of charge. For an intangible product, the place is not well described but refers to decisions about the networks where customers are reached by information delivery.
In social marketing, Promotion is a way information is made available. Many of the techniques are used. Advertising, the use of charts and documentaries along with public relations, entertainment and media advocacy are used as a means of the promotion of the services provided by Social Marketing. For promoting it in a better mean requires creativity. Due to its prominence, Promotion is sometimes wrongly assumed to constitute social marketing.
It includes a systematic usage of advertisements, media lobbying, sales, and means of transport for entertainment. The attention is on generating and supporting product demand. Public service pronouncements or advertisements are away but other methods are available such as a coupon, media event and editorials are used which helps in the awareness of the audience for the organisation’s social marketing campaign.
SOCIAL MEDIA: A MARKETING PLATFORM
Social networking is designed to allow people the opportunity to easily gain information and communicate. Such resources are used by healthcare providers to exchange information with customers in several ways, such as sharing information on vaccines and advice for cold prevention. Sharing reports about diseases is an important way for patients to get reliable information from healthcare facilities. Healthcare administrators use social media to gain insight into the programs they deliver and overall customer satisfaction by spending time assessing their rivals. To collect input and enhance efficiency, social media will provide doctors with individual responses to help them understand reactions to drugs and overall patient data. By this, freely available information on social networking sites helps healthcare providers to learn from the patient’s responses and to adapt accordingly. Healthcare practitioners do have the ability to assess the likelihood of new programs in the sector by following reviews on those pages.
So, in times of crisis, social networking sites usage had increased for providing consumers with details. Hospitals may provide real-time information about availability, clinical status and emergency room access by it. Having a social media presence helps healthcare workers interact with the information provided by organisations like the Red Cross and the Centres for Disease Control. Social Media acts as a marketing platform in the following ways:
Information on Diseases, its clinical manifestations, management and treatment could be provided on websites
These websites could be promoted by Social Networking sites such as Facebook, Instagram & Twitter
Another method is by creating an awareness video and uploading on YouTube which can be viewed by many people
Running online Ads, Commercials, Posts, Stories, Videos etc. can be done for the marketing of healthcare standards by Social Media
We develop The Marketing Mix Strategy by considering all the Pillars of Social marketing such as the product, price, place & promotion. Considering an example of a campaign for the screening of older women on breast cancer includes the following elements:
It can result in the following three behaviours:
Having an Annual Mammogram
Visiting a doctor for a breast examination each year
On a monthly bases, do Self-examinations of the breast.
The price of these behaviours includes the mammogram and the examination’s monetary costs, discomfort and embarrassment.
The Public that you may need to address include your target audience, people influencing their decisions like their husbands or doctors, policymakers, local radio station public service directors, as well as your board of directors and office staff.
Partnerships with local or national women’s groups, corporate sponsors, medical organisations, service clubs, and media outlets could be cultivated.
Government grants, such as from the National Cancer Institute or the Local Health Department, foundation grants or an organization like the American Cancer Society, can be the purse strings, or where the funding will come from.
SOCIAL MARKETING SITES FOR HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS
In general, according to Lee Ventola, as social networking develop, medically focus professional groups have been established. Funding sources for such sites differ, with financial support mostly given by professional societies, advertisement or data sales, research funding, and pharmaceutical companies. There are many websites which provide information to the doctors, physicians, nurses, pharmacists and even to the patients or consumers. We describe some of them below:
Sermo is a website “only for physicians” which verifies new member’s qualifications during registration. It consists of a message board upon which doctors establish discussion topics. It also provides a rating system by which doctors rank posts on the site based on perceived credibility.
Doximity is a newer “physicist-only” social networking platform that provides text and photos that comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which allows for crowdsourcing of point-of-care information. It uses a nationwide database to build demographic “placeholder” accounts and contact details for all US physicians
The site ‘s services include a robust library, discussion groups, calendar updates, and warnings. The platform also offers dedicated groups for medical directors working in a wide variety of fields, including hospital, veteran services, medicare, private practice, employer, mental health, managed care, correctional facilities, and long-term care.
Moreover, there are a few social networking sites for pharmacists, too. Such sites include ASHP Connect (www.connect.ashp.org), funded by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; PharmQD (www.pharmqd.com); and The Pharmacist Society (www.pharmacistsociety.com).16 Skilled nursing networking forums include ANANurseSpace (www.ananursespace.org), NursingLink (www.nursinglink.com).
Not to specifically help a brand but to generate the social or behavioural change we design. It increases awareness on a problem using traditional marketing techniques and intends to persuade the audience to change their behaviour. In general, Nowadays, social networking platforms like Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and WhatsApp, have become the main source of information. So, Social networking has been an important part of the marketing and communication strategies of many health-care organizations. It is a perfect mean to keep individuals, communities and healthcare organisations linked even though physically separated. So, Social marketing acts as a source of information in the healthcare industry as it provides information to the patients and their representatives regarding the outcomes of disease.
On the whole, Product, Price, Place & Promotion are the Four major components use as social marketing techniques. The Marketing Mix Strategy is a strategy considering all the Pillars of Social marketing such as the product, price, place & promotion. Moreover, to easily access information and communicate with others they design social networking to allow people the opportunity. So, Healthcare providers use resources and services to exchange information with customers.
The world of medicine is developing rapidly and so is the level of treatment provided to the patients. But there is a possibility of medical error. So, there must be a collaboration between the hospital staff including Doctors, Nurses and Pharmacists. Additionally, it includes the Hospital Administration staff.
COLLABORATION ON MEDICAL ERROR FOR PATIENT SAFETY AND SAFE MEDICATION PRACTICES
An error is described as a failure of a planned action to be performed as intended (i.e., execution error) or the use of a mistaken plan to achieve a goal. Recent medical error reports have reported that errors can account for as many as 251,000 deaths in the United States (U.S.) annually, making medical errors the third leading cause of death. Error rates are higher in the United States than Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Germany and the United Kingdom (UK).
COLLABORATION & TEAMWORK
Collaboration is defined as working with someone to get something created.
MODEL OF EFFECTIVE TEAM
The most common causes of medical errors are breakdowns in communication. These issues, whether verbal or written, may arise in a medical practice or healthcare system and may occur between a physician, nurse, member of the healthcare team or patient. poor communication also leads to medical mistakes. The GRPI model may help restore communication and to prevent such errors due to communication. To sum up, a GRPI model is a basic structure to promote the success of a team for any project. So, during the development of a new team, implementation is done.
When teams are stuck and the leaders need to review teamwork aspects, this model is useful. High-performance teams evolve from these high-impact leadership skills. So, this model has a clear mission to improve performance and to support high performance.
It’s kind of a very static model. Their objective refers to a specific time point, and not to the growth of a team as useful for all phases.
TEAMWORK AND PATIENT SAFETY
Work using different methodological approaches in recent years has led to significant improvements in healthcare teamwork. The task for future research is to further develop and validate instruments for team performance. So, this will help improve team training activities and help design clinical work systems for patients.
The overall time for change has been slowly making a difference in educating about patient safety and safe medication practices.
Without a doubt, Leadership is the art of motivating a group of individuals to act toward a common goal. Moreover, management is a social discipline concerned with the actions of the people and the institutions of a human. According to the Next Generation, Leadership is about inspiring and management is about planning. The most dynamic element of any company is the manager. As a result, without him, the resources of production remain resources without output.
So, Public health is a vital community medicine speciality which integrates an individual’s concepts of public health. With this in mind, leadership in public health with the opportunity to influence and inspire people leads to the Community ‘s progress. For example, teen pregnancy is a major social health issue which for generations has a potential impact on families. Teen pregnancy rates have decreased over time even in some parts of the world, such as the developed nations.
So, to tackle and resolve a health issue, good management and leadership skill is necessary. In short, public health workforce leadership and management skills help to lower morbidity and mortality. Similarly, collecting more details to help strategize public health policy. Furthermore, in this study, various behavioural perspectives will discuss the relevance of management and leadership theory. As well as, its application to teen pregnancy in public health.
ROLES OF LEADERSHIP?
Leadership plays an important part in bringing about change in every healthcare organization. Evaluating service delivery, service efficiency and resource utilization. Public health in Teen Pregnancy is about protecting and strengthening communities through the prevention, care, and policy advancement of injury or disease. There are two key aspects a health-care organization wants to achieve:
To enhance the health condition of the population
To provide the healthcare services to the community
Following this, health care leaders must understand the nature of their work organization and should behave in an organized manner. They must work by establishing harmony in a working relationship with nurses, administrators, physicians, and other members of the organization. To produce better performance outcomes, health care leaders need to inspire them. Few issues emerge that need to be resolved by medical leaders for an institute’s overall success. For example, the best way to communicate with subordinates, money and morality benefits. For better workers results, Medical leaders need to consider these issues. It is the responsibility of the state to look at these issues before changing the healthcare systems. The subjects include:
who pays how much for the treatment
who gets the service
and for the essence of work duty who gets pay?
Applying a systemic approach helps the leadership of public health handle access to services in the most productive way. It is important that the essential public health services assist them for the health systems. As per the Centre for Disease Control’s data, a total of 194,377 babies were born by the women aged between 15-19 years in the developing nations in 2017. The young girls who live under foster care. For example, are more likely to become pregnant compared with those who are not under foster care.
WHAT ARE LEADERSHIP STYLES?
Leadership style differs in different environments. For example, an administrator may see himself as a distinct leader from another administrator. A leader must have potential characteristics in contrast to his followers. This idea focuses on a leader’s personality characteristics and values. The attributes defined by this theory include endurance, physical strength, knowing followers needs, abilities in communicating with people, the quench of achieving goals, eager to learn his duty, job skills, ability to inspire followers, bravery, self-confidence, and decision-making capacity. Healthcare leadership aims at influencing practitioners towards achieving the shared goal of quality patient care. So, leaders with such traits are able to convince young girls to avoid pregnancies. Through knowing the girls desires the leader will provide them with their preferred facilities to exercise their choices.
Associated with the leadership of transformation are four behaviours. It comprises idealized influenced, motivation, intellectual stimulation and individual consideration described as follows:
Idealized influence is the high ethical and moral conduct of the leader
Motivation is the leader’s drive to embody the clear vision and find the desired ideals with the potential to affect others
Intellectual stimulation is a transformational leader’s activities questioning the standards and inspiring followers to be creative and think critically
Individual consideration is the leader’s actions in considering his followers’ needs in creating a particular development plan for them.
Undoubtedly, transformation leaders seek to accomplish greater goals within an organization by encouraging other community members to express their dream for the organization. Considering the teen pregnancy issue, the leader needs to be transparent and have a strong willingness to support social change by raising awareness about the effects of teen pregnancies. They can centrally synchronize the reproductive health program aimed at teenagers in order to provide them with a systematic framework on the teachings of sex in schools. There are various NGO’s working for the cause. Transformation leaders are motivating and raising their follower’s morality and helping them reach their fullest potential. Cited as the leaders of transformation are Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Nelson Mandela.
Management and leadership are two distinct fields and the areas of practice are often different. Management roles can contribute to leadership, while leadership activities may provide guidance. Similarly, managers and leaders productive role in different circumstances. The different types of management practices represent successful leadership. Besides, followers are less likely to rely on leadership because they share a socially-based relationship, so management can act as a bridge between leaders and followers. Thus, a leader designs a programme and address the teen pregnancy issue.
Stanfield says factors like moral values and honesty play a role in successful leadership. The concept of distributed leadership revealed by Jones states that there is no need to be called a leader to the formal position of the management authority. Management plans to manage the workforce have already been examined, while leadership intends to influence the workforce or the followers through motivation, charisma and intellectual stimulus. As in the case of teenage pregnancy, management and leadership should function concurrently in such a way that direction can be presented to the supreme leaders and then the best-suited managers have to execute.
WHAT IS COMPETENCE?
In the sense of health management and leadership skills, the word competence was used for health and leadership literature review. Competency is the skill, expertise and behaviours by which health leaders need to perform their roles effectively meaning that the capacity is correlated with the training and development strategies for efficient results. Knowledge demonstrates the understanding of the concepts, principles and guidelines needed to perform any task efficiently. At the other hand, to achieve a result, competence is to have the capacity and capabilities to perform any cognitive function. Training in this silo of public health professionals are convenient but also dangerous.
A wide-ranging critique made from overlooking the needs of each manager in line with the dominant leadership position. Identifying the core competencies is mandatory, as it helps to achieve the desired goal. Besides, Competence is the ability to consistently produce behavioural outcomes required to achieve organizational goals effectively. So, a professional health manager and leader have his talents, abilities and experience that help him to handle or lead most efficiently.
So, one says that integrity and a leader and manager’s integrity are the prerequisites for achieving the desired goals, which in this case of the study is raising knowledge among people about the implications of teen pregnancies. It would be difficult to provide services to the medical sector without a constant flow of events, which requires a public health officer to decide to have strong communication skills that allow efficient transmission of information from one section to another.
Competence refers to the process which allows individuals, particularly leaders and managers, to express the competencies required to complete the task. On the other hand, Power is correlated with the power or capacity to retain the requisite skills at the optimal level of performing a job. To sum up, it has been found that the atmosphere at healthcare organizations is dynamic that the skilled and knowledgeable leaders and administrators are in desperate need of handling the social health issues. Competent leaders have the ability, skills and knowledge to handle a given situation in the best possible efficient way. A good leader in public health will imitate strong consulting skills. It is a crucial dimension, which needs tremendous attention.
There are other characteristics, such as physical stamina, knowing follower’s needs, ability to communicate with others, the quench of achieving goals, anxious to know their duties, job skills, ability to inspire their followers, bravery, self-confidence, and willingness to make decisions that make them successful leaders in various circumstances. A leader and manager must possess these characteristics that are the core competencies. Managers and leaders face various circumstances in the workplace that allow leadership to shape their personality according to the situation.
This sector is a difficult one to deal with leaders, it should welcome each other and work together. Since communication is a two-way flow, strong listening skills should be built. Leaders should strive to be good listeners as much as possible. Therefore, saving on other unnecessary costs through the introduction of new ways must be implemented. Thus, Management and leadership should go hand in hand. While leaders are individuals who are others follow and managers are the ones who others obey.