Why Is Self Medication & Patient Safety So Important?

Why Is Self Medication & Patient Safety So Important?

Is Self-administering Medication a safe as well as a secure method. Moreover, are there any risks, if we self medicate ourselves. Self Medication is the taking of drugs herbs or home remedies on one’s own initiative, or on the advice of another person without doctor’s consultation.

THERE ARE SOME RISKS OF SELF MEDICATION

  • Incorrect self-diagnosis.
  • Delay in seeking medical advice.
  • Serious adverse reactions.
  • Dangerous drug interactions.
  • Incorrect manner of administration.
  • Incorrect dosage.
  • Masking of severe diseases.
  • Allergic reaction to some medicines
  • Addiction to some drugs.
  • Antimicrobial Resistance.
  • Substance abuse.

ANTIBIOTICS

  • Overall, Not all infections can be treated with antibiotics, Antibiotics can’t cure viral infections like cold & flu.
  • In fact, only take antibiotics prescribed to you, don’t share them with family &friends.
  • Antibiotics are not always the answer, in particular, so, don’t demand antibiotics if your doctor says you don’t need them.
  • Always seek the advice of a qualified doctor when taking antibiotics

Do I really need antibiotics?

SAY YES TO ANTIBIOTICS 

when needed for certain, infections caused by bacteria.

SAY NO TO ANTIBIOTICS

for viruses such as cold & flu/runny nose even if the mucus is thick, yellow/green. Antibiotics won’t help for some common bacterial infections including most cases of bronchitis many sinus infections & some ear infections.

Do antibiotics have side effects?

Anytime antibiotics are used, they can cause side effects. when Antibiotics are not needed they won’t help you & side effects could still hurt you. common side effects of Antibiotics can include Rash, Dizziness, Nausea, Yeast infections and Diarrhea.

More serious side effects include Clostridium infection which causes diarrhoea that can lead to severe colon damage & death. People can also have severe life-threatening allergic reactions.

Misusing & Overusing

  • Taking Antibiotics when they are not needed to accelerates the emergence of Antibiotics resistance. One of the biggest threat to global health.
  • Overuse of Antibiotics can cause bacteria to become resistant. meaning current treatment will no longer work.
  • It is the bacteria itself, not the person or animal that becomes resistant to antibiotics.
  • When bacteria become resistant to antibiotics common infections will no longer be treatable.
  • Antibiotic-resistant infection can affect anyone of any age in any country.
  • Antibiotic-resistant infection can lead to longer hospital stays, higher medical costs &more deaths.

Everyone has a Role to Play You Can Help Prevent Antibiotic Resistance

  • Preventing infection can reduce the use of Antibiotics & limit the spread of antibiotic-resistant. Good basic hygiene is one of the most effective ways to reduce the risk of infection.
  • Make sure you complete your course of antibiotic treatment & don’t leave when symptoms subside.
  • Make sure you take antibiotics on regular times for a minimum of 5 days.

 What can you do to ease the symptoms?

  • Have plenty of rest and drink lots of fluids
  • Ask a pharmacist to recommend medicines to help your symptoms
  • Fever is a sign the body is fighting infection and usually gets better by itself, Paracetamol! or ibuprofen can help reduce fever
  • If symptoms persist, please contact your pharmacist or General Physician

ANALGESICS

These are medication that primarily relieves pain. They are of different types. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and steroids are of major concern

Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

  • They’re a group of drugs that are used to relieve pain, reduce fever & produce an anti-inflammatory effect for swelling &redness.
  • So, most well-known NSAIDs are paracetamol (Crocin, Dolo), Aspirin, Ibuprofen & Diclofenac (Voveran) Most people use them to treat headache, muscle ache, cramps, Joint Pains, aches from Cold.
  • NSAIDs are easily available, so many people don’t consider them serious medications still, they have major side effects such as,
    • Heart Health: Taking NSAIDs may increase the risk of heart attack/stroke.
    • Kidney Health: Even short term use can harm kidneys. If you have pre-existing kidney disease & taking NSAIDs. It’s important to talk to your doctor about it.
    • Digestion: Short term NSAIDs use can cause Gastrointestinal distress like stomach pain or nausea.long term use can cause ulcers (Peptic ulcer disease) & stomach bleeding.

Risk of NSAIDs

  • NSAIDscanmasksigns &symptoms of infections.
  • NSAIDs (particularly indomethacin) can interfere with medications used to control cardiac failure.
  • NSAIDs can interfere with blood clotting & raise your BP up to dangerous & life-threatening rates If you have already been diagnosed with high BP, high cholesterol or any heart disease, you should take serious caution before taking NSAIDs & speak with your doctor beforehand.
  • Women &anyone over 60 years age are at higher risk of side effects with NSAIDs.

Side Effects of NSAIDs

To avoid overdose or increase in side effect follow these tips when taking NSAIDs

  • Watch your dosage – take the lowest effective dose for the shortest amount of time required for relief. Talk with a doctor before using NSAID for more than 10 days for Pain.
  • Read Labels carefully – Make sure you know what you are taking. many medicines contain NSAIDs so look at active ingredient on tablets & know what’s in every medication you are taking. To avoid an excessive dose of NSAIDs.
  • Know the Risks – Be aware of any risk factor that could increase your chance of side effect when taking NSAIDs such as some preexisting conditions like kidney disease.
  • Talk to your doctor before taking new medicine This will help you understand the risk & make the best decision for your health.
  • So, talk to your doctor about what you can do to reduce your use of NSAIDs & find natural ways to decrease inflammation that may be causing pain.
  • For appropriate use of NSAIDs FDA (Food & Drug Administration) alliance for rational use of NSAIDs in addition to the medical societies strongly recommend that,

STEROIDS

  • So, these are chemicals, often hormones, that your body makes naturally. Besides, they help your organs, tissues & cells do their jobs. Two main types are corticosteroids and an anabolic-androgenic steroid.
  • On the whole, Corticosteroids which are of major concern, are medicines that quickly fight inflammation in your body. These lab-made steroids work like the hormone cortisol, which your adrenal glands make. cortisol prevent your immune system from making substances that cause inflammation.

To avoid overdose or increase in side effect follow these tips when taking steroids,

  • Make prescriber aware of any concurrent diseases, in particular.
  • Be mindful of back pain as well as weight gain.
  • If a patient taking steroid medicine for more than 3 weeks then they shouldn’t stop the medication.
  • The dose should be tapered down gradually to minimum levels & then stopped,
  • Don’t take Antacids (PAN) & anti-inflammatory Pain Killer (ibuprofen) while taking steroids.

OTHER MEDICATIONS OF CONCERN

Antihistamines (cetirizine) or cough syrups:

Used in cold, have sedation dizziness as a side effect.

Supplements:

Calcium supplements – an overdose of calcium may lead to the kidney as well as gall bladder stones. cannot be taken if the patient is having kidney or gall bladder stones.

Vitamin D – In excessive amount may damage heart & kidneys.

Patients should ask for doctors approval before taking supplements.

Contraceptive Pills :

Make sure you discuss with your doctor before starting one, as there may be a risk of some unwanted/unintended reactions which may become serious.

So, Self Medication is an important part of everyone’s life. But it must be made sure that Self Medication and patient safety are in contrast to each other.

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Document a Query in just 7 Steps

Document a Query in just 7 Steps

Undoubtedly, the drug information query is an essential step for the documentation of the cases. It can be done in the following seven steps:

STEP 1: SECURE DEMOGRAPHICS OF REQUESTOR

On the whole, secure requestor demographics for a querySo, the requestor’s profession should indicate educational experience and knowledge base; therefore, the individual receiving the query can use this information to determine the appropriate mannerism to formulate and deliver the response. Determine a method in particular, for the deliverance of the response. Moreover, gather information from the requestor that will allow you to reply to the request. Examples of information to gather include the following: the requestor’s address, phone number, pager number, and fax number.

STEP 2: OBTAIN BACKGROUND INFORMATION

In general, request background information for the query. Background information, in particular, helps in clarifying the question and is a vital step in the procedure. So, the question may not be stated concisely or the requestor may not know how to ask the question. To develop an acceptable answer, both the caller and the researcher must possess a clear apprehension of the ultimate question.

STEP 3: DETERMINE AND CATEGORIZE THE ULTIMATE QUESTION

Prepare a timeline in general for the response. Totally understanding the orbit of the “true” question as well as aids in getting a realistic idea of the time needed to write a reply. So, Categorize the question:

  • A vital step in the systematic approach
  • Allows for effective use of the resources by providing the basis of a logical progression process
  • An extensive resource with information to answer every drug information question does not subsist
  • References contain specific types of information
  • Numerous topic-specific resources are available 
  • Classification of a request aids in developing a more effective search strategy
  • Selecting the resource with the highest probability of containing the desired information can decrease the time requirement and increase the accuracy of the response
  • Otherwise, unnecessary time and energy may be expended on searching references unable to produce the needed facts

STEP 4: DEVELOP STRATEGY AND CONDUCT SEARCH

Undoubtedly, select and prioritize resources based on the probability of locating the desired information. Without prioritization, resources may be used based on ease of access or degree of comfort instead of probable efficiency. So, conduct a systematic search. Be familiar with the three types of information sources in the literature hierarchy. Begin with the established knowledge located within the tertiary literature due to the condensed, easy-to-use format of the information presented. Progress through the secondary literature to the primary literature. As mentioned previously, if the question is classified as a Drug Interaction, then a logical and efficient search would begin with a text-specific for drug interactions. If a text-specific for drug interaction is not available, other references likely to contain the desired information should be selected as opposed to references with a decreased probability of containing the information.

STEP 5: PERFORM EVALUATION, ANALYSIS, AND SYNTHESIS

Confirm information with other references to assure consistency between various resources. While authors, editors, and publishers attempt to assure the reliability of the information published, most resources include a disclaimer statement since errors do occur occasionally

STEP 6: FORMULATE AND PROVIDE RESPONSE

Restate the question and any pertinent background information. Provide information and recommendation. In addition, a brief review of the search strategy and references reviewed may be included in the response as a confirmation to the comprehensive search conducted. Compose the response at the requestor’s comprehension level

STEP 7: CONDUCT FOLLOW-UP AND DOCUMENTATION

  • Methods of documentation:
  • Reasons for documentations:
    • Justification of pharmacist’s professional value to the institution
    • A future reference for repetitive drug information requests
    • Protective measure against legal liability
  • Methods of follow-up
    • Mail survey
    • Phone call
    • Written communication
  • Reasons for the follow-up:
    • Provide the requestor with additional information that supports or changes a prior recommendation
    • Obtain feedback concerning the quality of the service

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Quick Tips Regarding Case Sheet Preparation

Quick Tips Regarding Case Sheet Preparation

When I was in my second year Of Pharm D, there was quite a difficulty in documenting the cases. For the most part, we use to do it in books. One fine day me, as well as my friends, came up with a solution to prepare a format for documenting the cases. So, we noted down all the factors involved in a patient proforma at the hospital and moreover searched all over the internet. Finally, we came to a conclusion of the inclusion and exclusion points of a case sheet and after 8 days of hard work, we designed a case sheet which was eventually approved by our college.

So, the case sheet is a documentation format with the help of which we collect and document the cases. For instance, Different types of studies or research require different types of criteria. So, This blog is about the criteria most commonly included in a case sheet. The case sheet, in particular, is divided into six main blocks which constitute the essential part. They are the following:

  • Demographic Details
  • Case Details
  • Systemic Examination
  • Laboratory Investigation
  • Radiology Investigations
  • Medication Chart

DEMOGRAPHIC DETAILS OF CASE SHEET

Undoubtedly, it involves all the demographic details of the patients. Such as:

  • Patient name
  • Age
  • Sex
  • I.P No.
  • Date of Admission
  • Date of Discharge
  • Height
  • Weight
  • Additionally, the Blood group of the patient
  • Name of the Consultant, in general
  • In particular, the Department in which the patient is admitted

CASE DETAILS OF CASE SHEET

So, this includes all the details of disease or the problem by which the patient is suffering from. To sum up, it includes:

  • Chief complaints
  • Past history
  • Medication history
  • Family history
  • Social history
  • Diagnosis
    • Provisional
    • Final

SYSTEMIC EXAMINATION

The systemic examination involves aspects like Blood Pressure, Pulse Rate, Temperature, SPO2 levels, Respiratory levels as well as the Heart rate of the patient.

LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS

On the whole, this section includes all the laboratory tests which are done to assess the condition of the patient. In particular, it includes:

  • Complete blood picture
  • Renal function tests
  • Blood glucose
  • Complete urine examinations
  • Liver function tests
  • Last but not least, the Electrolytes

RADIOLOGY INVESTIGATIONS

It includes all the radiology tests which are done to assess the condition of the patient as well as aid in the diagnosis of the patient. For instance, some examples of radiology tests are 2D-Echo, Radiography, X-Ray, KUB scan etc.

MEDICATION CHART

Last but not least this is the section where all the medications prescribed to the patient are documented. In fact, it involves all the details of the drugs which are as follows:

  • Drug name
  • Generic name
  • Dose
  • Route of Administration
  • Frequency
  • Time
  • Last but not least, the Therapeutic use
Everything You Need To Know About Case Discussion

Everything You Need To Know About Case Discussion

Many a time, Indeed, I get a question from many students how should we upload Case Discussion on Clinirex. In general, What is its proper format? likewise other questions. In short, to document all the details of their hospital postings, many students of Pharm D use Clinirex.

WHAT IS CASE DISCUSSION?

For Instance, case discussion involves the discussion of the entire case uploaded on Clinirex. So, It includes two important points like Evidence and Patient Counselling.

EVIDENCE

In general, the evidence involves the details of the patients. In this section, you just have to include the patient’s age, Systemic Examination details as well as Lab Investigation details.

Treatment goals

In particular, we must include the type of treatment goals based on the disease or the drugs to the patient. Moreover, It could be based on symptomatic treatment or for post-surgical prophylaxis.

Pharmacological Treatment

The pharmacological treatment involves all the drugs given to the patient along with its uses as well as its mechanisms of actions. All the drugs included I in this case all the drugs must be mentioned.

Non-Pharmacological treatment

So, in this, including the Non-Pharmacological treatment. A sample paragraph, in particular, showing what you can include in this section is as follows:

Dietary Intake must be monitored and only easily digested food materials like oatmeal, rice, boiled vegetables, soups etc must be taken. Controlled protein Intake as limiting protein helps reduce waste build-up in the body and helps in prevent uremia. Must monitor, Potassium levels that may increase due to low urine output. Juices must be taken in adequate amount to prevent Dehydration. You must avoid, foods with low levels of fats and bad cholesterol.  A high sodium diet can make you retain more fluid and can affect blood pressure. Regular check-ups must be done and parameters must be monitored regularly. Moreover, Monitor, electrolytes levels in the body as any imbalances in them leads to the re-occurrence of seizures.

Goals Achieved

Include the details of the goals which are achieved by the drug for the disease.

PATIENT COUNSELLING

Disease Counselling Points

In general, it includes the points you will use to counsel the patient about the disease.

Medication counselling points

In fact, it includes the points you will use to counsel the patient about the medicines.

Lifestyle counselling points

Includes the points you will use to counsel the patient about in particular, the lifestyle changes.

Beginners guide to Pharm D

Beginners guide to Pharm D

Unquestionably, I had faced many difficulties in choosing a course to pursue a career after completing Intermediate (10 + 2). After a lot of brainstorming, surfing on endless sites on the internet as well as searching on google for endless hours for many days, finally, I came to a conclusion and selected Pharm D.

Now that I’m in my Final Year of Pharm D, I have many insights about this course. Therefore, from my personal experience, I can correctly describe the course of Pharm D or Doctor of Pharmacy.

WHAT IS PHARM. D?

Pharm D

So, basically, Pharm D or Doctor of Pharmacy course is a 6-year long Professional Pharmacy post-graduate program. On the whole, it was introduced in India by The Pharmacy Council of India (PCI) in the year 2008 and additionally, it is the only postgraduate degree that can be pursued immediately after passing Intermediate (10 + 2). In addition, B. Pharmacy or Bachelor of Pharmacy graduates could also pursue Pharm D (Doctor of Pharmacy) by seeking admissions to the Post Baccalaureate course. Conversely, it is a 3-year course focusing on the aspects of Pharm D which are not included in the B Pharmacy Course. Correspondingly, these courses have to be carried out from a College offering Pharm D course recognized by the Pharmacy Council of India (PCI). Moreover, this course covers the use, manufacture and application of medicines about the disease the patient is suffering from.

Pharm D is in many ways different from the traditional B Pharmacy course. The duration of Pharm D is 6 years which is 2 years longer than B Pharmacy that is 4 years. In addition, Pharm D course focuses mainly on clinical medicine, medical education, pharmacy treatment and health care. B Pharm course primarily focuses on the pharmaceutical as well as the testing industries. In short, Pharm D is much more comprehensive as well as integrated and worthwhile than the course of B Pharmacy. A person holding a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm. D) degree can add the prefix “Dr” for the purpose of practising Pharmacy Profession under the Pharmacy Act as per the Pharmacy Council of India (PCI).

WHAT ARE THE SUBJECTS IN PHARM. D COURSE?

The first five years of Pharm D are based on theoretical aspects, unquestionably. For instance, There are a total of 27 subjects included in all the 5 years of Pharm D. Individually, the first four years of Pharm D include six subjects each and the fifth year has only 3 subjects. Moreover, The sixth-year is based only on practical training at the Hospital. So, I’ve included the year-wise list of all the subjects included in the course of Pharm D.

List of subjects in 1st year of Pharm. D

1.1 Human Anatomy and Physiology

1.2 Pharmaceutics

1.3 Medicinal Biochemistry

1.4 Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry

1.5 Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry

1.6 Remedial Mathematics / Biology

List of subjects in 2nd year of Pharm. D

2.1 Pathophysiology

2.2 Pharmaceutical Microbiology

2.3 Pharmacognosy & Phytopharmaceuticals

2.4 Pharmacology – I

2.5 Community Pharmacy

2.6 Pharmacotherapeutics – I

List of subjects in 3rd year of Pharm. D

3.1 Pharmacology – II

3.2 Pharmaceutical Analysis

3.3 Pharmacotherapeutics – II

3.4 Pharmaceutical Jurisprudence

3.5 Medicinal Chemistry

3.6 Pharmaceutical Formulations

List of subjects in 4th year of Pharm. D

4.1 Pharmacotherapeutics – III

4.2 Hospital Pharmacy

4.3 Clinical Pharmacy

4.4 Biostatistics and Research Methodology

4.5 Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics

4.6 Clinical Toxicology

List of subjects in 5th year of Pharm. D

5.1 Clinical Research

5.2 Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics

5.3 Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacotherapeutic Drug Monitoring

6th year of Pharm. D

Candidates may undertake internships, or research requires positions in different units in medicine and additionally, students will separately provide clinical pharmacy services to the wards allocated. Particularly, the training includes:

  • 6 months in the School of General Medicine
  • 2 months in each Department of Specialities

ADMISSION PROCESS FOR PHARM. D

On the whole, admission typically happens under the jurisdiction of State or Central Medical Admission. So, It’s based on Merit Marks. With this in mind, taking into account marks earned by a State student or all Indian level entrance exam and 12th Science Board examination. Consequently, on the basis of these points, they select a merit list and the seats will be allocated to students who earn them, based on the merit list. When it comes to the admission process, reservations and relaxations exist in the form of caste-based reservations & relaxations, NRI quota and donation quota. So, These reservations/relaxations can be used by qualified and competent applicants.

So, after the completion of Pharm D course, you are eligible to use the Dr prefix apart from this you can also register for Ph D.