On the whole, leadership is the art of motivating a group of individuals to act toward a common goal. Management, in particular, is a social discipline concerned with the actions of the people and the institutions of a human. In general terms, Leadership is about inspiring and management is about planning. In fact, the most dynamic element of a company is the manager. Furthermore, without him/her, the resources of production remain as resources without output. Moreover, Public health is a vital community medicine speciality which integrates an individual’s concepts of public health.
Good management and leadership are required to tackle the health issue so that the problem can be resolved appropriately and most productively. Particularly, this can be done by evaluating service delivery, service efficiency and resource utilization. So, Public health is about protecting and strengthening communities through the prevention, care, and policy advancement of injury or disease. In addition, there are two key aspects a health-care organization wants to achieve:
- To enhance the health condition of the population
- To provide the healthcare services to the community
Healthcare systems consist of a large number of professionals, groups of complex units and specialities. For example, Doctors and administrators in hospitals are not always in perfect relationships. Due to the demands in the healthcare world, it’s common for the doctors to get overwhelmed and lose sight of what matters most to the administrators. Besides, these two groups tend to have different focus areas. Doctors concentrate on patient care while administrators concentrate more on the organizational aspects of operating the company. Situations like these help in the emergence of a leader and according to Huston CJ, the following characteristics are seen in a leader:
- Envisioning the desired future
- Fostering Innovation and Change
- Building Effective Teams
- Creating positive work cultures
ENVISIONING THE DESIRED FUTURE
A critical part of leadership is having a vision for the optimal work environment. Followers become more inspired to act when leaders promote a strong vision that many people identify with and want to be part of. Vision offers guidance for a team and lets people concentrate on doing what it takes to get a job done well. Vision also helps encourage and offers a clear view of how the management plans to accomplish those targets for those concerned.
FOSTERING INNOVATION AND CHANGE
Some of the driving forces for change in contemporary health care include raising prices, diminishing reimbursement, shortages in the workforce, new technology, and a growing elderly population. Healthcare leaders today are challenged to think in new ways, adjust to change, and lead that change while creating new care models and dealing with rapid change effectively while leading more complex organizations. Meeting this challenge was also seen as being an important part of leadership skills. The ability of the change agent is what often differentiates a successful change effort from an unsuccessful one.
A leader who is skilled in organized change theory and execution to cope effectively with contradictory human emotions and to connect and balance all facets of the company that will be impacted by the transition. Leaders will also ensure that anyone impacted by a transition can be included in the preparation for the transition. The agents of reform and the system’s “elements” need to build goals and plans together freely.
BUILDING EFFECTIVE TEAMS
Teambuilding, which includes a shared mission and vision of all stakeholders, is critical to achieving organizational objectives. The role of the leader is fundamental in building that team. In team building, the leader must recognize all team members’ skills and capabilities and empower them to work to the fullest potential. The most efficient teams include talented people who have complementary areas of expertise and are comfortable to express their opinions. Leaders will trust and encourage their team members with new learning opportunities. The leaders and their teams should be able to show a high degree of emotional intelligence and the confidence to make the right decisions for the company when tough decisions are needed. Leaders will also inspire team members to collaborate collaboratively, so they can work together effectively and learn from each other.
CREATING POSITIVE WORK CULTURES
Leaders need to set a good example because, after the leaders of the organization, workers often model their attitudes. Besides, a leader who ‘shows honesty and integrity in all activities, for example, can serve as a role model for team members to ensure they act similarly. A leader who ‘admits a mistake and takes ownership of the situation can demonstrate the importance of acting responsibly to the rest of the team. Organisational leaders are the most powerful force in changing the culture of an organization and doing away with intimidating behaviour. True leaders do so by talking to the employees of the company; by modelling desired behaviour (“walking the talk”); and by formulating policies that promote, enable and reward desired improvements in attitudes and actions around the company.
Healthcare leadership aims at influencing practitioners towards achieving the shared goal of quality patient care. The demands put on leaders in the hospital sector have become more complex, and the need for different types of leadership is becoming increasingly obvious. The intensive reorganization has taken place to derive cost-efficiency and improve productivity.
As a result of these changes, there has been increasing recognition that certain assumptions of traditional leadership models are not well suited to bringing about change at the point of care or to ensuring expanded participation of clinicians and patients in decision-making. Accordingly, calls have been made for a transition to a new phase of hospital leadership, one that puts the clinical frontline and clinicians at the top.
THEORY OF TRANSFORMATION
The Transformation theory demands that leaders express their vision in a meaningful, exciting way which creates cohesion and unification collective purpose; the dedicated manager has a vision and is capable of inspiring others as transformational King. The transformative leaders will inspire success the capacity to affect behaviours beyond expectations. Transformation leaders seek to accomplish greater goals within an organization by encouraging other community members to express their dream for the organization. Transformation leaders are motivating and raising their follower’s morality and helping them reach their fullest potential. The leaders of transformation are Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Nelson Mandela
Collaborative partnerships in today’s dynamic and competitive healthcare environment allow organizations to achieve improved results by gaining expertise, skills, technologies or other vital resources that a single entity cannot provide on its own. Collaborative collaborations put together people who have very different bases of expertise, behaviours and expectations. Each partner has unique knowledge and competencies that can benefit others. They build learning opportunities for themselves and each other as partners coordinate, prepare plans and move forward. Stanfield says factors like moral values and honesty play a role in successful leadership. Communication is a two-way path, so being an effective communicator requires proper listening and virtuous speech. So, Effective leaders in health care need professional skills. Some of the skills are as follows:
- Decision Making
- Customer-First Oriented
- Listening and Learning
- Planning and Vision
- Build open channels of Communication
Competence refers to the process which allows individuals, particularly leaders and managers, to express the competencies required to complete the task. To sum up, it has been found that the atmosphere at healthcare organizations is dynamic that the skilled and knowledgeable leaders and administrators are in desperate need of handling the social health issues. Competent leaders have the ability, skills and knowledge to handle a given situation in the best possible efficient way. So, It is a crucial dimension, which needs tremendous attention.
The Health Care Manager will demonstrate the following particular behaviours to facilitate collaborative problem-solving among stakeholders:
- Trust that the goals and aims are achievable.
- The capacity to act as an active listener.
- The capacity to share information and power with the employees
- The ability to evaluate and manage varying risk levels in decision making and implementation.
Although collaborative leadership has much in common with theories of transformational leadership and servant leadership, there are also many differences. Among the many benefits of collective leadership, there are drawbacks, too. So, Two of the drawbacks are to:
- Communication can be sluggish and time-consuming
- Conflicts of a high degree may require management in addition to mediation
- Collaborative leaders may need to grant the team some of their power as well as authority
While this sector is a difficult one to deal with leaders, it should welcome each other and work together to solve the related local problems. Therefore, saving on other unnecessary costs that may arise would prevail through the introduction of new ways and means of communicating a seamless flow of events. In the same way, Management and leadership should go hand in hand. In that, while leaders are individuals they are followed by others by their own choices and managers must be obeyed.