Public health is described as the science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through coordinated efforts. The main objective of public health is to improve the quality of life through the prevention and treatment of diseases, including mental health. This is achieved through the tracking of cases and health indicators. Common public health programs include the promotion of hand-washing and breast-feeding, vaccination, suicide prevention and distribution of condoms. The goal of public health policy is to prevent and reduce illnesses, accidents and other health conditions by tracking cases and promoting healthy lifestyles, communities and the community. Education and training of public health professionals are done in the Public Health Schools, Medical Schools, Veterinary Schools, Nursing Schools and Public Affairs Schools. There are certain roles of a person dealing with public health:

  • Track the health status of a group to identify potential problems
  • Diagnosing and addressing health problems and hazards in the community
  • Inform and empower people on health issues, in particular, those under-served and those at risk.
  • Mobilize Community Partnerships to Identify and Solve Health Problems
  • Create policies and plans to support individual and community health programs
  • Enforce health security and safety laws and regulations
  • Connect individuals to the need for personal health services and ensure the availability of health care where otherwise inaccessible.
  • Ensure competent public health and personal health workers
  • Evaluate the effectiveness, accessibility and quality of personal and population-based health services
  • Research new insights and innovative solutions to health problems

The new public health agenda in India includes epidemiological transitions, demographic transition, changes in the environment, and social health determinants. There is an urgent call to revitalize primary health care to address these challenges, based on the principles outlined at Alma-Ata in 1978. Within the health sector, the government’s role in affecting population health is not constrained, but also by different sectors outside the health systems.

Strengthening of the health system, development of human resources, capacity building and public health regulation are important areas in the health sector. Contribution to a population’s health often stems from social determinants of health such as living conditions, food, safe drinking water, sanitation, education, early child growth, and measures of social security. Stabilization of the population, gender mainstreaming and empowerment, reducing the health impact of climate change and disasters, improving community involvement and governance issues are other important areas for action. It is a politically difficult strategy to make public health a common interest across different sectors, but such collective action is vital.

The profession of public health has been complex in India, and there have been many challenges in its attempt to influence the lives of the people of this state. After independence, major public health issues such as malaria, tuberculosis, leprosy, high maternal and child mortality and, recently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been resolved by concerted government action. Social development, combined with scientific advances and health care, has led to a decline in mortality and birth rates. The lack of financial and material resources, the challenges of health workers and the difficulty of implementing medical pro-equity initiatives in a pluralistic setting are key issues that health systems must tackle. Identifying health objectives and targets are one of the most visible strategies to guide the activities of the health sector. Global health research is vital to progress.

A major issue is the inequitable distribution of research efforts and funding to people with the greatest health problems in the world. Non-governmental organizations carry out many useful activities. However, only government agencies derive their authority from the entire community, locality, and nation and are therefore accountable to the entire public. NGOs contribute to the relevance and effectiveness of research, priority setting and translation of knowledge into action at all stages of the research cycle.

An important indicator of obesity among the population of the nation is the BMI (body mass index) which has been observed to increase steadily over the years, especially among young children ready to enter adulthood. As far as the average weight of the population of the country concerned is concerned, it has been shown that it has risen from 0.5 kilograms to 1 kilogram for the last 20 kilograms. These facts and figures were the basis of this academic presentation, given that overweight and obesity are linked to various illnesses.

The fact that the same has been growing among the population of the nation over the years makes it important to be able to identify the consequences and steps that have been taken to tackle this very significant issue of public health in the country. The first and most significant thing that needs to be highlighted is the fact that the rise in weight and obesity has a direct impact on the health of individuals in the country.

The public health system focuses on prevention through population-based health promotion–public services and interventions that protect entire populations from disease, disease and injury–and protection. Government public health agencies are the primary providers of these public health services. The Ministry of Health needs to establish better relations with other agencies involved in public health because many factors that affect health outcomes are outside their direct control. Government health agencies will need to develop comprehensive plans working collaboratively with the community, social agencies and the personal health care system, including both the public and private sectors.

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