2.1 Pathophysiology

1. Basic principles of Cell Injury and Adaptation

a. Causes, Pathogenesis and Morphology of Cell Injury

b. Abnormalities in:

i. Lipoproteinaemia

ii. Glycogen Infiltration

iii. Glycogen Storage Diseases

2. Inflammation

a. Pathogenesis of Acute Inflammation

b. Chemical Mediators in Inflammation

c. Types of Chronic Inflammation

d. Repairs of Wounds in the Skin

e. Factors Influencing Healing of Wounds

3. Diseases of Immunity

a. Introduction to T and B Cells

b. MHC Proteins or Transplantation Antigens

c. Immune Tolerance:

i. Hypersensitivity:

a) Hypersensitivity type I, II, III, IV

b) Biological Significance

c) Allergy due to Food, Chemicals and Drugs

ii. Autoimmunity

a) Criteria for Autoimmunity

b) Classifications of Autoimmune Diseases in Man

c) Mechanism of Autoimmunity

d) Transplantation and Immunologic Tolerance

e) Allograft Rejections

f) Transplantation Antigens

g) Mechanism of Rejection of Allograft

iii. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

iv. Amylodosis

4. Cancer

a. Differences between Benign and Malignant Tumors

b. Histological Diagnosis of Malignancy

c. Invasions and Metastasis

d. Patterns of Spread

e. Disturbances of Growth of Cells

f. Classification of Tumors

g. General Biology of Tumors

h. Spread of Malignant Tumors

i. Etiology and Pathogenesis of Cancer

5. Shock:

a. Types of Shock

b. Mechanisms

c. Stages

d. Management

6. Biological Effects of Radiation

7. Environmental and Nutritional Diseases

a. Air pollution and smoking:

i. Sulphur dioxide (SO2)

ii. Nitrogen Oxide (NO)

iii. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

iv. Carbon Monoxide (CO)

b. Malnutrition:

i. Protein Calorie Malnutrition

ii. Vitamins

iii. Obesity

iv. Pathogenesis of Starvation

8. Pathophysiology of Common Diseases

a. Parkinsonism

b. Schizophrenia

c. Depression

d. Mania

e. Hypertension

f. Stroke (Ischaemic and Hemorrhage)

g. Angina

h. Congestive Cardiac Failure (CCF)

i. Atherosclerosis

j. Myocardial Infarction

k. Diabetes Mellitus

l. Peptic Ulcer

m. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

n. Cirrhosis

o. Alcoholic Liver Diseases

p. Acute and Chronic Renal Failure

q. Asthma

r. Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases

9. Infectious diseases

a. Sexually transmitted diseases:

i. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

ii. Syphilis

iii. Gonorrhea

b. Urinary tract infections

c. Pneumonia

d. Typhoid

e. Tuberculosis

f. Leprosy

g. Malaria

h. Dysentery (Bacterial and Amoebic)

i. Hepatitis