2.2 Pharmaceutical Microbiology

1. Introduction to the Science of Microbiology. Major divisions of Microbial World and Relationship among them

2. Different methods of Classification of Microbes and study of

a. Bacteria

b. Fungi

c. Virus

d. Rickettsiae

e. Spirochetes

3. Bacteria and Virus

a. Nutritional Requirements

b. Growth and Cultivation of Bacteria and Virus

c. Study of Different important media required for the Growth of Aerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria & Fungi

d. Differential Media

e. Enriched Media

f. Selective Media

g. Maintenance of Lab Cultures

4. Methods of Identification

a. Different methods used in isolation and identification of bacteria with emphasis to different staining techniques and biochemical reactions

b. Counting of bacteria – Total and Viable counting techniques

5. Pharmaceutical Products

a. Detailed study of different methods of sterilization including their merits and demerits

b. Sterilization methods for all pharmaceutical products

c. Detailed study of sterility testing of different pharmaceutical preparations

d. Brief information on Validation

6. Disinfectants

a. Study of Factors Affecting the Activation and Mechanism of Action of:

i. Disinfectants

ii. Antiseptics

iii. Fungicidal

iv. Virucidal Agents

b. Evaluation of:

i. Bactericidal,

ii. Bacteristatic

iii. Virucidal Activities

c. Evaluation of Preservatives in Pharmaceutical Preparations

7. Immunology

a. Immunity: Definition, Classification

b. General Principles of Natural Immunity

c. Phagocytosis Acquired Immunity (Active and Passive)

d. Antigens

e. Chemical Nature of Antigens Structure and Formation of Antibodies

f. Antigen-Antibody Reactions

g. Bacterial Exotoxins and Endotoxins

h. Significance of Toxoids in Active Immunity

i. Immunization Programme

j. Importance of Booster Dose

8. Diagnostic Tests

a. Schick’s Test

b. Elisa Test

c. Western Blot Test

d. Southern Blot Test

e. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

f. Widal Test

g. Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC)

h. Mantaux Peripheral Smear

i. Study of Malarial Parasite

9. Microbial Culture Sensitivity Testing

a. Interpretation of Results

b. Principles and Methods of different Microbiological Assays

c. Microbiological Assay of Penicillin

d. Microbiological Assay of Streptomycin

e. Microbiological Assay of Vitamin B2

f. Microbiological Assay of Vitamin B12

g. Standardisation of Vaccines and Sera

10. Study of Infectious Diseases

a. Typhoid

b. Tuberculosis

c. Malaria

d. Cholera

e. Hepatitis

f. Meningitis

g. Syphilis

h. Gonorrhea

i. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)