4.4 Biostatistics and Research Methodology

1. Research Methodology

a. Types of Clinical Study Designs

i. Case studies

ii. Observational Studies

iii. Interventional Studies

b. Designing the Methodology

c. Sample Size Determination and Power of a Study

d. Determination of Sample Size for Simple Comparative Experiments

e. Determination of Sample Size to obtain a Confidence Interval of Specified Width

f. Power of a Study

g. Report Writing and Presentation of Data

2. Biostatistics

a. Introduction

i. Types of Data Distribution

ii. Measures describing the Central Tendency Distributions

  • Mean (Average)
  • Median
  • Mode

iii. Measurement of the Spread of Data-range

  • Variation of Mean
  • Standard Deviation
  • Variance
  • Coefficient of Variation
  • Standard error of Mean

b. Data Graphics

i. Construction and Labelling of Graphs

ii. Histogram

iii. Piecharts

iv. Scatter Plots

v. Semilogarthimic Plots

c. Basics of Testing Hypothesis

i. Null Hypothesis

ii. Level of Significance

iii. Power of Test

iv. P Value

v. Statistical Estimation of Confidence Intervals

vi. Level of Significance (Parametric data)

  • Students t-test (Paired and Unpaired)
  • Chi-Square test
  • Analysis of Variance (One-way and Two-way)

vii. Level of Significance (Non-Parametric Data)

  • Sign Test
  • Wilcoxon’s Signed Rank Test
  • Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test
  • Mann Whitney U Test
  • Kruskal-Wall is Test (One-way ANOVA)

viii. Linear regression and correlation

  • Introduction
  • Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation and correlation co-efficient

ix. Introduction to Statistical Software

  • SPSS
  • Epi Info
  • SAS

d. Statistical Methods in Epidemiology

i. Incidence and Prevalence

ii. Relative Risk

iii. Attributable Risk

3. Computer Applications in Pharmacy

a. Computer System in Hospital Pharmacy

i. Patterns of Computer use in Hospital Pharmacy

ii. Patient Record Database Management

iii. Medication Order Entry

iv. Drug Labels and List

v. Intravenous Solution and Admixture

vi. Patient Medication Profiles

vii. Inventory Control

viii. Management Report & Statistics

b. Computer in Community Pharmacy

i. Computerizing the Prescription Dispensing Process

ii. Use of Computers for Pharmaceutical Care in Community Pharmacy

iii. Accounting and General Ledger System

c. Drug Information Retrieval & Storage

i. Introduction

ii. Advantages of Computerized Literature Retrieval

iii. Use of Computerized Retrieval