4.6 Clinical Toxicology

1. General Principles involved in the Management of Poisoning

2. Antidotes and the Clinical Applications

3. Supportive Care in Clinical Toxicology

4. Gut Decontamination

5. Elimination Enhancement

6. Toxicokinetics

7. Clinical Symptoms and Management of Acute Poisoning with the following agents:

a. Pesticide Poisoning:

i. Organophosphorous Compounds

ii. Carbamates

iii. Organochlorines

iv. Pyrethroids

b. Opiates Overdose

c. Antidepressants

d. Barbiturates

e. Benzodiazepines

f. Alcohol:

i. Ethanol

ii. Methanol

g. Paracetamol

h. Salicylates

i. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID’s)

j. Hydrocarbons:

i. Petroleum Products

ii. PEG

k. Caustics:

i. Inorganic Acids and Alkali

l. Radiation Poisoning

8. Clinical Symptoms and Management of Chronic Poisoning with the following Agents:

a. Heavy metals:

i. Arsenic

ii. Lead

iii. Mercury

iv. Iron

v. Copper

9. Venomous snake bites:

a. Families of Venomous Snakes

b. Clinical Effects of Venoms

c. General Management

d. Early Manifestations

e. Complications

f. Snake Bite Injuries

10. Plants poisoning:

a. Mushrooms

b. Mycotoxins

11. Food poisonings

12. Envenomations:

a. Arthropod Bites

b. Stings

13. Substance Abuse:

a. CNS Stimulants:

i. Amphetamine

b. Opioids

c. CNS depressants

d. Hallucinogens:

i. LSD

e. Cannabis group

f. Tobacco