5.2 Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics

1. Pharmacoepidemiology

a. Definition and Scope

i. Origin and Evaluation of Pharmacoepidemiology

ii. Need for Pharmacoepidemiology

iii. Aims and Applications

b. Measurement of Outcomes in Pharmacoepidemiology

i. Outcome Measure

ii. Drug Use Measures

iii. Prevalence

iv. Incidence

v. Incidence Rate

vi. Monetary Units

vii. Number of Prescriptions

viii. Units of Drugs Dispensed

ix. Defined Daily Doses

x. Prescribed Daily Doses

xi. Medication Adherence Measurement

c. Concept of Risk in Pharmacoepidemiology

i. Measurement of Risk

ii. Attributable Risk

iii. Relative Risk

iv. Time-Risk Relationship

v. Odds Ratio

d. Pharmacoepidemiological Methods

i. Theoretical Aspects of Various Methods

ii. Practical Study of Various Methods with the help of Case Studies for Individual Methods

iii. Drug Utilization Review

iv. Case Reports

v. Case Series

vi. Surveys of Drug Use

vii. Cross – Sectional Studies

viii. Cohort Studies

ix. Case Control Studies

x. Case-Cohort Studies

xi. Meta-Analysis Studies

xii. Spontaneous Reporting

xiii. Prescription Events Monitoring

xiv. Record Linkage System

e. Sources of Data for Pharmacoepidemiological Studies

i. Ad Hoc Data Sources

ii. Automated Data Systems

f. Selected Special Applications of Pharmacoepidemiology

i. Studies of Vaccine Safety

ii. Hospital Pharmacoepidemiology

iii. Pharmacoepidemiology and Risk Management

iv. Drug Induced Birth Defects

2. Pharmacoeconomics

a. Definition

b. History

c. Needs of Pharmacoeconomic Evaluations

d. Role in Formulary Management Decisions

e. Pharmacoeconomic Evaluation

i. Outcome assessment and types of evaluation

  • Theoretical Aspects of various methods and Practical Study of various methods with the help of Case Studies for Individual methods
    • Cost-Minimization
    • Cost-Benefit
    • Cost-Effectiveness
    • Cost-Utility

3. Applications of Pharmacoeconomics

  • Software and Case Studies