5.3 Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacotherapeutic Drug Monitoring

1. Introduction to Clinical Pharmacokinetics

2. Design of Dosage Regimens

a. Nomograms and Tabulations in Designing Dosage Regimen

b. Conversion from Intravenous to Oral Dosing

c. Determination of Dose and Dosing Intervals

d. Drug Dosing in the

i. Elderly Patients

ii. Pediatrics Patients

iii. Obese Patients

3. Pharmacokinetics of Drug Interaction

a. Pharmacokinetic Drug Interactions

b. Inhibition and Induction of Drug Metabolism

c. Inhibition of Biliary Excretion.

4. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

a. Introduction

b. Individualization of Drug Dosage Regimen

i. Variability-Genetic

ii. Age and Weight

iii. Disease

iv. Interacting Drugs

c. Indications for TDM

d. Protocol for TDM

e. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Correlation in Drug Therapy

f. TDM of Drugs used in the following Disease Conditions:

i. Cardiovascular Disease

ii. Seizure Disorders

iii. Psychiatric Conditions

iv. Organ Transplantations

5. Dosage Adjustment in Renal and Hepatic Disease

a. Renal Impairment

b. Pharmacokinetic Considerations

c. General Approach for Dosage Adjustment in Renal Disease

d. Measurement of Glomerular Filtration Rate and Creatinine Clearance

e. Dosage Adjustment for Uremic Patients

f. Extracorporeal Removal of Drugs

g. Effect of Hepatic Disease on Pharmacokinetics

6. Population Pharmacokinetics

a. Introduction to Bayesian Theory

b. Adaptive Method or Dosing with Feedback

c. Analysis of Population Pharmacokinetic Data

7. Pharmacogenetics

a. Genetic Polymorphism in Drug Metabolism

i. Cytochrome P-450 Isoenzymes

b. Genetic Polymorphism in Drug Transport and Drug Targets

c. Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamic Considerations