The Ultimate Glossary of essential terms in Nutrition

The Ultimate Glossary of essential terms in Nutrition

Many a time we hear the word Nutrition. The internet is flooded with tons of blogs and articles related to Health & Nutrition. Many quotes promoting nutrition are popular over the Internet. Even so, you fail to get proper data regarding this thing because none of those sites gives you the data you desire. So, I’ve searched over the internet, books, articles, newspapers, videos and prepared an “Ultimate Glossary of the essential terms in Nutrition”.

WHAT IS NUTRITION?

We all know what is Nutrition which is in fact how the food affects our body health. Undoubtedly, the food is important because it provides nutrition in the form of essential life nutrients, which helps the body function consequently helps the body to remain healthy. Food consists of macronutrients including protein, carbohydrate and fat which not only fuel the body with calories and give it energy but also play specific roles in maintaining health. Correspondingly, food also supplies micronutrients and phytochemicals which do not provide caloric nutrition but serve several critical functions to ensure optimal functioning of the body.

NUTRIENTS FOR NUTRITION?

To survive, our body requires nutrition in the form of nutrients. These are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, soil, minerals, and vitamins. So, our body uses these nutrients for nutrition to grow, work and to fix any issues in the body. Obviously, everyone requires nutrients from food. It takes different quantities depending on the age, gender as well as the level of physical activity of a person. Nutrients come in two types:

  • Macronutrients
  • Micronutrients

Macronutrients are needed in greater amounts and include carbohydrates, protein, fats, and water.

Micronutrients are required in smaller amounts than macronutrients, with vitamins and minerals included.

MACRONUTRIENTS

CALORIES

Calories measure how much energy is found in food, likewise, minutes measure the time and the length of the inches, calories measure the amount of energy available in a meal. In order to work the body needs energy, which is why it needs food for life. So, Calories can be found in carbs, proteins, fats and alcohol additionally they measure how much energy is found in food.

FOODS RICH IN CALORIES INCLUDE: vegetables, nuts, beans, whole grains, lean meats and low-fat dairy foods

CARBOHYDRATES

Unquestionably, Carbohydrates are the principal energy source of the body. It is an important source of nutrition for our body. Most foods contain carbohydrates and with this in mind it comes in two forms:

  • Simple Carbohydrates
  • Complex Carbohydrates

Simple carbohydrates give you fast energy and are naturally found in foods such as berries, vegetables and milk.

Complex carbohydrates give you long-lasting energy moreover can be found in foods like fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and beans. One gram of carbohydrate comes with 4 calories. So, Carbohydrates are known as the principal energy source of the body.

FOODS RICH IN CARBOHYDRATES INCLUDE Beans, fruits, low-fat dairy foods, vegetables, whole grains (such as whole-wheat bread or crackers, brown rice, oatmeal), and nuts.

FIBRE

Fibre is mainly present in plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, and seeds. Thus, it comes in two different forms:

  • Insoluble Fiber
  • Soluble Fiber

Insoluble fibre is known as “roughage” and helps to avoid constipation by pushing food into the body. It also helps in regulating blood sugar levels.

Soluble fibre assists in pulling cholesterol out of the body. It also helps to control the levels of blood sugar and keep the food in the stomach longer so you feel full. Fibre can also help to reduce the risk of high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke and some cancer types.

Fibre helps you feel full, maintain normal levels of sugar in your blood and prevent constipation. This is present only in foods made from plants.

FOODS RICH IN FIBER INCLUDE Beans, blackberries, dates, peas, pears, pumpkin, raspberries, whole wheat cereal, and whole wheat bread or crackers.

FATS

Fats are nutrients that create cells, that protect the organs of the body and that help to absorb certain vitamins. Fat comes in many different shapes and some are healthier than others:

  • Oils that help lower “poor” cholesterol are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. (LDL) levels, and may increase levels of “good ” cholesterol (HDL). Both unsaturated and monounsaturated Plants, nuts, and fish produce polyunsaturated fats.
  • Saturated and trans fats are solid fats which elevate the cholesterol “poor” (LDL). Even Trans fats Lower the levels of “good ” cholesterol (HDL). Saturated fats are commonly present in livestock products (Butter, whole milk, beef and pork), while hydrogenated vegetable oils contain trans fats Used in pre-cooked food (fried foods, pies, crackers) (shortening and margarine).

One gram of fat contains nine calories. Fats are nutrients that create cells, that protect the organs of the body and that help to absorb certain vitamins. Another is

FOODS RICH IN FATS INCLUDE:  Avocado, canola oil, some fish, nuts, olives, and olive oil are all good sources of healthy monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.

PROTEINS

Proteins are nutrients present both in food and animal products. They are formed from amino acids by which the body builds and repairs itself. There are two protein types in it:

  • Full proteins consist of all the amino acids which the body requires to survive. Proteins Based on Animal products (such as beef, milk, and poultry) and soya beans are both proteins.
  • Incomplete proteins lack one or more of the amino acids required by the body for survival. Plant-sourced proteins (such as grains, fruit and vegetables) are examples of Inexhaustible proteins. This will help the body get a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains

All the amino acids which you need. One gram of protein has 4 calories. Proteins are nutrients that build and fix the cells that make up the body.

FOODS RICH IN PROTEIN INCLUDE Beans, eggs, fish, lean meats, low-fat dairy foods, poultry, and soy foods.

WATER

The body wants to make a life with water. Water helps to regulate the temperature of the body, and to use nutrients present in Food, and bring oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and food from the stomach. In general, clean water helps avoid constipation and helps maintain moist eyes, nose, and mouth. Find water in fruits so vegetables help people get to the minimum amount of fluids they need every day. The body wants to make a life with water. To conclude, Water helps to regulate the temperature of the body and to use nutrients present in Food and carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and food from the stomach

FOODS RICH IN WATER INCLUDE Plain water, water flavoured with tea or coffee, and fruits and vegetables with large amounts of water (such as grapefruit, lettuce, and watermelon).

MICRONUTRIENTS

Micronutrients

VITAMINS & MINERALS

Vitamins and minerals are nutrients which the body requires to develop, function and repair itself. In fact, anyone eats a safe, balanced diet with good options from every food group will most likely get everything. Indeed, they need vitamins and minerals without taking pills or supplements. Vitamins and minerals are nutrients which the body requires to develop, function and repair itself.

FOODS RICH IN VITAMINS & MINERALS INCLUDE Beans, low-fat dairy products, fruits, lean meats, vegetables, and whole grains.

PHYTOCHEMICALS

Phytochemicals (also known as phytonutrients) help to boost the immune system and reduce the incidence of risk of heart disease and other types of cancer. They are present only in foods made from plants. Besides, different types of Fruit and vegetables are given their vivid colours by phytochemicals. So, by eating a variety of colourful fruits and Vegetables is a simple way to get a variety of health-enhancing phytochemicals. Phytochemicals (also known as phytonutrients) help to boost the immune system and reduce the incidence of risk of heart disease and other types of cancer. Furthermore, they are present only in foods made from plants.

FOODS RICH IN PHYTOCHEMICALS INCLUDE Blueberries, broccoli, citrus fruits, soy foods, and tomatoes.

ANTIOXIDANTS

Antioxidants are a group of vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals that can reduce the risk of certain substances diseases by safeguarding the body from free radicals. Free radicals are a kind of body waste Makes energy, when it uses oxygen. So, by removing free radicals from the body can decrease the risk of some forms of cancer, and help maintain a balanced immune system. In summary, Antioxidants are a group of vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals that can reduce the risk of certain substances Diseases by safeguarding the body from free radicals. On the whole, Free radicals can damage cells in the body.

FOODS RICH IN ANTIOXIDANTS INCLUDE Artichokes, blackberries, blueberries, cranberries, pecans, raspberries, strawberries, and walnuts.

VITAMINS

VITAMIN A

Vitamin A helps maintain good vision, fight infection, encourage cell growth and maintain healthy skin. It is also an antioxidant which helps safe the body from free radicals. So, it helps to preserve good vision, prevent infection, and promote healthy skin.

FOODS RICH IN VITAMIN A INCLUDE Dark orange vegetables (for example carrots, pumpkin, sweet vegetables) Potatoes) and dark leafy greens (e.g., kale, spinach, and turnips).

THIAMIN

Vitamin B1 also applies to thiamine. Undoubtedly, Thiamine helps preserve healthy nerves in the body. It also supports the Body makes use of the energy stored in food. Vitamin B1 also applies to thiamine. Hence, Thiamine helps preserve healthy nerves in the body.

FOODS RICH IN THIAMIN INCLUDE: whole grain fortified cereals, lean pork, lentils, peas, And then the pecans.

RIBOFLAVIN

Riboflavin is also known as vitamin B2. It helps transform food into energy and is essential for healthy eyes as well as the head. Riboflavin is also known as vitamin B2. Moreover, it aids in transforming food into energy.

FOODS RICH IN RIBOFLAVIN INCLUDE: low-fat milk, mushrooms, spinach, whole-grain cereals, and some zucchini.

VITAMIN B6

Vitamin B6 helps develop healthy blood cells in the body. These are essential to help build proteins and Freed energy. It also helps to build up to infectious agents, transmit messages to the brain and Test blood sugar levels. To sum up, they help to develop healthy blood cells in the body. So, Vitamin B6 is often needed to help build proteins and emit energy.

FOODS RICH IN VITAMIN B6 INCLUDE avocados, bell peppers, butternut squash, cauliflower, Collard greens, and zucchini.

FOLATE

Folate is a vitamin that helps create healthy red blood cells and therefore decreases the likelihood that a woman will have a child With some birth defects. The ability to help protect against heart disease is also being studied. In conclusion, Folate is a vitamin that helps create healthy red blood cells and decreases the likelihood that a woman will have a child With some birth defects.

FOODS RICH IN FOLATE INCLUDE avocados, blackeye peas, broccoli, breakfasts fortified Cereals, bread, okra, oranges, pinto beans, spinach and asparagus.

VITAMIN C

Vitamin C protects cuts and wounds in the body and protects reduce the risk of infection. Also, Vitamin C Keeps the body from bruising and helps create the tissue that keeps together the muscles and bones. Helps the body also to absorb the iron found in food. It can especially be found only in plants. Furthermore, Vitamin C protects cuts and wounds in the body and protects reduce the risk of infection.

FOODS RICH IN VITAMIN C INCLUDE peppers of the button, broccoli, citrus fruits (such as bananas and bananas). Cantaloupe, cauliflower, kiwifruit, mustard, and strawberries.

VITAMIN E

Vitamin E is an antioxidant which protects cells in the body. It also improves vitamin K in the body and maintains a healthy immune system, skin and hair. Therefore, it is an antioxidant which protects cells in the body.

FOODS RICH IN VITAMIN E INCLUDE: noodles, oils (e.g. corn oil, cotton oil, safflower oil, and

Soybean oil), seeds, and germ wheat.

VITAMIN K

Vitamin K helps too much to avoid bleeding cuts and scrapes and begins the healing process. Additionally, in conjunction with calcium helps to develop healthy bones. Vitamin K can also help to preserve the blood Good boats. Thus, Vitamin K helps too much to avoid bleeding cuts and scrapes and begins the healing process.

FOODS RICH IN VITAMIN K INCLUDE: asparagus, broccoli, collard greens, kale and spinach.

MINERALS

CALCIUM

Calcium is a mineral that works with phosphorous and vitamin D to create healthy teeth and bones. Not only it helps to maintain healthy blood pressure but also helps to maintain healthy nerves and strengthens muscles. In short, Calcium is a mineral that works with phosphorous and vitamin D to create healthy teeth and bones and provides nutrition.

FOODS RICH IN CALCIUM INCLUDE nuts, orange juice and tofu fortified with calcium, canned; Salmon, dark green leafy vegetables, dried beans, low-fat dairy food, and nopal leaves.

IRON

Iron is a mineral which helps transfer oxygen to the rest of the body from the lungs. It also supports the body is producing new red blood cells and fighting infections.

FOODS RICH IN IRON INCLUDE: beans, lean beef, lentils, fortified cereals, prune juice, Seeds of pumpkin, and soy milk.

MAGNESIUM

Magnesium is a mineral that allows the body to absorb the energy stored in food. Moreover, it combines with calcium to create healthy bones and helps avoid infection with vitamin C. It may also lead to lower blood pressure and elevated blood sugar levels. To conclude, Magnesium is a mineral that allows the body to absorb the energy stored in food.

FOODS RICH IN MAGNESIUM INCLUDE: bananas, bran cereals, brown rice, peanuts, and spinach.

POTASSIUM

Potassium is a mineral which helps your brain tell when to move muscles. It also helps to maintain Good blood pressure and lets the body use carbohydrate energy. Potassium is a mineral which helps your brain tell when to move muscles. Potassium also helps to maintain healthy blood pressure and proper nutrition.

FOODS RICH IN POTASSIUM INCLUDE: bananas, beans, oranges, prune juice, peas, raisins, spinach, and tomatoes.

What is Nutrition & Why does it Matter?

What is Nutrition & Why does it Matter?

2 years ago, I was working as an Intern at a Hospital, so, my job was to analyse the conditions of all the patients and report it to the Doctor. I have examined thousands of patients but one day as I was on my daily round, I saw a patient whose body structure resembles a thin branch of a tree. It was quite astonishing to see that patient as I have never seen any such case ever before. On the whole, his Nutrition was improper and not sufficient for the growth and development of his body.

I went to the Doctor and described the condition of the patient so, he concluded that the patient is malnourished. I said to him, “I had previously seen many malnourished patients but this one was different.”

With a quirked smile on his face, He explained to me that in this case, the patient is suffering from Severe Malnutrition. He has no body fat because he might have been unable to eat properly for years. Because of hearing this, many questions begin to arise in my head. So, I took a notepad and noted down all the questions.

What is Nutrition? Why is it important? How can a person be declared as Malnourished? How is Malnutrition prevented? 

After ending my day’s work over there, I rushed to my home and besides not having dinner and sleep, directly jumped to my laptop and started searching answers for all the questions. Due to my constant efforts, I was totally amazed by getting the results. Nutrition is much more than what we know.

WHAT IS NUTRITION?

Nutrition

We know Nutrition as a study of nutrients present in the food but what we do not know is how our body utilizes them as well as the relationship between diet, health and disease. The World Health Organisation defined Nutrition as a critical part of health and development. Proper nutrition is associated with improved health, stronger immune systems, safer pregnancy and childbirth as well as a lower risk of non-communicable diseases like Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus. We get energy and nutrients to be healthy by eating foods. The Nutrients in our food includes the following:

  • Proteins
  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Water

PROTEINS

Inside every cell in our body, we find protein. To build and maintain bones, muscles and skin, our bodies need protein from the foods we eat to provide nutrition. We get protein mostly from meat, dairy products and nuts. We obtain full protein from meat and other animal products. It means that they provide all the amino acids that the body can’t create. Most proteins obtained from plants are incomplete. So, to get all the amino acids needed by our body, we should eat different types of plant proteins daily. Having enough of the protein in the diet is essential because our body doesn’t store it the same way as it stores fats or carbohydrates.

CARBOHYDRATES

Carbohydrates are the most important source of energy of your body. The digestive system turns glucose to carbohydrates which uses this for energy for your cells, tissues and organs. For times when needed, Extra sugar is stored in your liver and muscles.

Carbohydrates are classified into simple or complex which is based on their chemical structure. Simple carbohydrates involve sugars which are present in foods like fruits, vegetables, meat, and oil. Complex carbohydrates include cereals, whole-grain bread, starchy vegetables and legumes.

FATS

Fat is something you need a bit of but not too much in your diet. Fats provide energy to your body and helps it absorb vitamins. Although fats are beneficial to your body, not all of them are similar. You should avoid saturated fats such as butter, Trans-fat which is found in products fried in partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs). Having too much fat will, of course, increase your weight. It has twice as many calories as carbohydrates or proteins.

VITAMINS

For the body’s growth and development, Vitamins are required. So, your body requires 13 different types of Vitamins and each of them has specific roles. Moreover, you can get all your vitamins from the food that you eat. Your body is also capable to produce vitamins D and K. If you eat a vegetarian diet, indeed, you may need to take Vitamin B12 in addition. You may get health problems if you have low levels of certain vitamins, for example, If you don’t get enough of vitamin C, you may become Anaemic. So, Eating a balanced diet is the best way to get enough vitamins for your body.

MINERALS

Unquestionably, Minerals are essential to keep your body safe. There are many different jobs for which your body uses minerals such as keeping your bones, muscles, heart, and brain to function properly. Additionally, Minerals are important for the production of enzymes and hormones too.

Minerals are of two types, Macrominerals and Trace Minerals. Larger quantities of macro minerals are required and they include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride, potassium, and sulphur, correspondingly trace minerals are needed in small quantities and it contains iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium.

WATER

Undoubtedly It is necessary for us to drink water. How much you need depends on your size, the level of activity you do as well as the weather you ‘re living in.

After surfing websites like World Health Organisation, Medline Plus, Medical News Today and Healthline in order to get details on all the nutrients available and their importance, I even searched for deficiencies which can be caused due to improper nutrition or Malnutrition.

DEFICIENCIES OF NUTRITION

BERIBERI: low levels of vitamin B1

ARIBOFLAVINOSIS: low levels of vitamin B2

PELLAGRA: low levels of vitamin B3

PARAESTHESIA: low levels of vitamin B5 leading to “pins and needles” feeling

BIOTIN DEFICIENCY: low levels of vitamin B7, which can be common in pregnancy

HYPOCOBALAMINEMIA: low levels of B12

NIGHT BLINDNESS: low levels of Vitamin A

SCURVY: low levels of vitamin C

RICKETS: severe vitamin D and calcium deficiency

After researching on the internet for 4 consecutive days, as a result of which, I made a conclusive report on why all these nutrients are important for our body and the deficiencies caused by them. Therefore, I showed this report to the Doctor of the Hospital where my internship was going on. For this reason, He was very happy and appreciated me in front of the whole hospital staff.

CONCLUSION: WHY IS NUTRITION IMPORTANT?

In conclusion, proper and effective intake of food and its nutritional management are both essential elements to ensure good health. In addition, smart food and nutrition along with a balanced diet can help to prevent illnesses. As well as, Eating the right foods will help the body cope with a continuing illness more effectively. So, understanding good nutrition and paying attention to what you eat will help you stay healthy.