Dengue fever is a disease borne by the dengue virus. Symptoms usually begin 3 to 14 days after infection. This may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains and a characteristic muscle rash. Recovery generally takes two to seventeen days. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into a life-threatening dengue haemorrhagic fever. This results in bleeding, low levels of platelets in the blood and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome. Dengue is transmitted by many Aedes-type mosquito species, mainly A. Aegypti.

Treatment of acute dengue is supportive and includes giving fluid either by mouth or intravenously for the mild or moderate disease. Paracetamol is recommended instead of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID’s) for fever reduction and pain relief in dengue due to an increased risk of bleeding. Once a mosquito carrying dengue virus bites a human, the virus reaches the skin along with the saliva from the mosquito. This binds and joins white blood cells and reproduces in the cells as they pass across the body. The white blood cells respond by producing a no. of signalling proteins, such a s cytokines and interferons, which are responsible for many of the symptoms, such as fever, the flu-like symptoms, and the severe pains.

In extreme infection, the development of the virus inside the body is significantly increased, and it can affect many more organs. Fluid from the bloodstream leaks through the wall of small blood vessels, and the blood pressure becomes so low that it cannot supply sufficient blood to vital organs. Furthermore, dysfunction of the bone marrow due to infection of the stromal leads to reduce no of platelets. So, This increases the risk of other major complications of dengue fever: bleeding.

SIGNS & SYMPTOMS

People infected with dengue virus are typically asymptomatic (80%) or only have mild symptoms such as uncomplicated fever. Others have a more serious illness, and it is life-threatening in a small proportion. The incubation period ranges from 3 to 14 days, but most often it is 4 to 7 days. Therefore it is unlikely that travellers returning from endemic areas will have dengue if fever or other symptoms start more than 14 days after they arrive home. Children often experience symptoms similar to those of the common cold and gastroenteritis and have a greater risk of severe complications, though initial symptoms are generally mild but include high fever.

CONCLUSION

Dengue fever is a disease borne by the dengue virus. Symptoms usually begin 3 to 14 days after infection. This may include a high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains and a characteristic muscle rash. Recovery generally takes two to seventeen days. In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into a life-threatening dengue haemorrhagic fever. This results in bleeding, low levels of platelets in the blood and blood plasma leakage, Or into dengue shock syndrome. Many Aedes-type mosquito species, mainly A. Aegypti, transmits Dengue. Furthermore, dysfunction of the bone marrow due to infection of the stromal leads to reduce no of platelets. So, This increases the risk of other major complications of dengue fever: bleeding.

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